152 School Shootings In America Since 2013
Since 2013, there have been at least 152 school shootings in America — an average of nearly one a week.
How many more before our leaders pass common-sense laws to prevent gun violence and save lives? Communities all over the country live in fear of gun violence. That’s unacceptable. We should feel secure in sending our children to school — comforted by the knowledge that they’re safe.
Consistent with expert advice and common sense, Everytown uses a straightforward, fair, and comprehensive definition for a school shooting: anytime a firearm is discharged inside a school building or on a school campus or grounds, as documented by the press and confirmed through further inquiries with law enforcement. Incidents in which guns were brought into schools but not fired, or were fired off school grounds after having been possessed in schools, are not included. 1 The database is updated as new shootings occur or as new evidence emerges about prior incidents.
When it comes to American children being exposed to gunfire, these shootings are just the tip of the iceberg. A report by the Urban Institute showed that in the single school district of Washington, DC, there were at least 336 gunshots in the vicinity of schools over a single school year. And school shootings have long-term impacts on the school community as a whole: a recent analysis of school shootings found that those involving a homicide reduced student enrollment in the affected schools, and depressed students’ standardized test scores by nearly 5 percent.
In 2014, Everytown analyzed the incidents for trends that might help prevent future violence.
In the two years since the mass shooting in Newtown, Connecticut, there have been at least 94 school shootings including fatal and nonfatal assaults, suicides, and unintentional shootings — an average of nearly one a week.
During the last three months alone, there were 16 school shootings including a single week in which there were five incidents in five separate states. These school shootings resulted in 45 deaths and 78 non-fatal gunshot injuries. In 32 percent of these incidents at least one person died.
Of the K-12 school shootings in which the shooter’s age was known, 70 percent (28 of 40 incidents) were perpetrated by minors. Among these K-12 school shootings where it was possible to determine the source of the firearm, nearly two-thirds of the shooters (10 of 16) obtained their guns from home.
In 35 shootings— more than a third of all incidents — at least one person was shot after an argument or confrontation escalated and a gun was on hand.
Regardless of the individuals involved in a shooting or the circumstances that gave rise to it, gunfire in our schools shatters the sense of security that these institutions are meant to foster. Everyone should agree that even one school shooting is one too many.
94 SCHOOL SHOOTINGS IN THE LAST TWO YEARS
The 94 school shootings occurred in 33 states across the country. Fifty-three percent of the shootings took place at K-12 schools and 47 percent took place on college or university campuses.
In 65 incidents (69 percent), the perpetrator(s) intentionally injured or killed another person with a gun; of these, 23 incidents resulted in at least one homicide. In 16 incidents, the shooter attempted or completed suicide — in six incidents after shooting someone else. Six shootings were purely accidental in nature. In 13 other incidents, a gun was discharged but no one was injured.
When it comes to American children being exposed to gunfire, these shootings are just the tip of the iceberg. A recent report by the Urban Institute showed that in just a single school district, Washington, DC, there were at least 336 gunshots in the vicinity of schools over just a single school year.2
The reasons of School Shooting
School Confrontations Lead to Shootings
At least 35 of the shootings — more than a third of total incidents — occurred after a confrontation or verbal argument intensified and shots were fired. Among the shootings that occurred after an altercation escalated:
October 3, 2014, Langston Hughes High School, Fairburn, Georgia
In the school parking lot after the homecoming football game, an 18-year-old student traded insults with a 17-year-old student from a different school and then shot and killed him.
May 3, 2014, Horizon Elementary, Everett, Washington
A group of teens was playing basketball at the school court when another group of teens arrived and a verbal argument began. When it turned physical, one of the teens pulled out a gun and shot a member of the other group.
April 16, 2014, Stillman College, Tuscaloosa, Alabama
After two students began arguing about a bet they had made over a video game, one pulled out a small caliber handgun and shot the other student twice in the torso. The victim was rushed to a hospital but did not die, and the other student turned himself in and was charged with attempted murder.
January 9, 2014, Liberty Technology Magnet High School, Jackson, Tennessee
Two male students, ages 16 and 17, got into a disagreement over a female student. After classes were dismissed, the two boys got into a fight, and one shot the other in the thigh.
December 4, 2013, West Orange High School, Winter Garden, Florida
A 17-year-old student shot a 15-year-old classmate during a fight that began as classes were being dismissed.
January 22, 2013, Lone Star College, Houston, Texas
A confrontation that began when two young men bumped into each other in the doorway of an academic building ended when one fired at least 10 shots. Three people were wounded, including two students and a 55-year-old maintenance worker who was shot in the leg.
January 16, 2013, Chicago State University, Chicago, Illinois
A fight broke out after a basketball game and spilled into the parking lot. In the confusion 17-year-old Tyrone Lawson was shot twice in the back, killing him. Two older men were later charged with the crime.
School bullying 校园霸凌
“Bullying is common in schools and seemed to play a role in the lives of many of the school shooters”. A typical bullying interaction consists of three parts, the offender/bully, a victim and one or more bystanders. This formula of three enables the bully to easily create public humiliation for their victim. Students who are bullied tend to develop behavioral problems, depression, less self-control, poorer social skills, and do worse in school. Once humiliated, victims never want to be a victim again and try to regain their image by joining groups. Often, they are rejected by their peers and follow through by restoring justice in what they see as an unjust situation. Their plan for restoration many times results in violence as shown by the school shooters. 75% of school shooters claimed or left behind evidence of them being victims of bullying, including Nathan Ferris, Edmar Aparecido Freitas, Brian Head, Seung-Hui Cho, Wellington Menezes Oliveira, Jeff Weise, and Adam Lanza. A growing number of studies show that students with disabilities, in general, are much more likely to be victims of bullying than students without disabilities.
Cyberbullying has changed the effect of bullying in another way. “… in the modern era a bully can also do so on Facebook and Twitter for the world to see. Once something is on the Internet, it cannot truly be removed, further enhancing the torment. That type of bullying is infinitely easier for the perpetrator to commit and just as infinitely hard for the victim to address or escape.”
Psychiatric drugs 精神类药物
According to Al Knight, there is no direct causal relationship that has been proven between school shootings and psychiatric drugs.
“What has been said is that the drugs may have either masked a deeper problem or reacted with other factors to produce resulting violence.” In short, the school shootings have not been found to be as a direct result of these drugs and the role they may have played if involved is currently unknown.
Shooting massacres in English-speaking countries often occur close together in time. Forensic psychiatrists attribute this to copycat behavior, which can be correlated with the level of media exposure. Some mass murderers study media reports of previous killers.
While there has been no evidence of a direct correlation between a desire for infamy and school shootings, but as suggested by Justin Nutt in 2013, those who feel as though they are alone and who feel no one will remember them may seek to be remembered through acts of violence. Nutt explains through the examination of the way in which news exposure is connected not to the victims, but the perpetrators. “… in an age of internet news and 24 hour news cycle, to avoid doing so would be seen as poor news reporting, but it also means those who feel nameless and as though no one will care or remember them when they are gone may feel doing something such as a school shooting will make sure they are remembered and listed in the history books.”
Injustice collectors “负能量”收集者
The tendency to itemize every unfair knock we’ve ever suffered is known as injustice collecting. Sometimes the injustices are personal, as in, “My boss unfairly promoted Rick over me.” This kind of self-talk leads to anger. At other times, the catalogued outrages lead to overwrought generalizations, such as, “Nothing ever goes well; this is too unfair.” This type of thinking leads to hopelessness and rage.
In a 2015 New Republic essay, Columbine author Dave Cullen described a subset of school shooters (and other mass murderers) known as “injustice collectors.” The essay described and expanded on the work of retired FBI profiler Mary Ellen O’Toole, who has published a peer-reviewed journal article on the subject. It also quoted Gary Noesner, who helped create and lead the FBI’s hostage negotiation unit, and served as Chief Negotiator for ten years.
Mental illness 精神疾病
The degree to which mental illness does or does not contribute to school shootings has been debated in society.
Although the vast majority of mentally ill individuals are non-violent, some evidence has suggested that mental illness or mental health symptoms are nearly universal among school shooters. For example, on April 16, 2007, a Virginia Tech (VT) student named Seung-Hui Cho shot and killed thirty-two faculty members and students on the campus and injured twenty-five more before taking his own life. For another instance, a 2002 report by the US Secret Service and US Department of Education found evidence that a majority of school shooters displayed evidence of mental health symptoms, often undiagnosed or untreated Criminologists Fox and DeLateur note that mental illness is only part of the issue, however, and mass shooters tend to externalize their problems, blaming others and are unlikely to seek psychiatric help, even if available. Other scholars have concluded that mass murderers display a common constellation of chronic mental health symptoms, chronic anger or antisocial traits, and a tendency to blame others for problems.
However, they note that attempting to “profile” school shooters with such a constellation of traits will likely result in many false positives as many individuals with such a profile do not engage in violent behaviors.
McGinty and colleagues conducted a study to find out if people tended to associate the violence of school shootings with mental illness, at the expense of other factors such as the availability of high-capacity magazines. Nearly 2,000 participants read a news piece on a shooting in which the shooter is diagnosed as having a mental illness and who used high capacity magazines. One group read an article that presented only the facts of the case. A different group read an article about the same shooting, but in it the author advocated for gun restrictions for people with mental illness. Another group read about the shooting in an article that suggested the proposal to ban large-capacity magazines, which acted to advocate that shootings could stem from a societal problem rather than an individual problem. The control group did not read anything. Participants were then all asked to fill out a questionnaire asking about their views on gun control and whether they thought there should be restrictions on high-capacity magazines. 71% of the control group thought that gun restrictions should be applied to people with mental illness, and nearly 80% of participants who read the articles agreed. Despite the fact that the article exposed the readers to both the mental illness of the shooter, and the fact that the shooter used high-capacity magazines, participants advocated more for gun restrictions on people with mental illness rather than bans on high-capacity magazines. This suggests that people believe mental illness is the culprit for school shootings in lieu of the accessibility of guns or other environmental factors.
Guns on Campus’ Laws for Public Colleges and Universities
A Guide for Students and Parents
The overwhelming majority of the 4,400 colleges and universities in the United States prohibit the carrying of firearms on their campuses. These gun-free policies have helped to make our post-secondary education institutions some of the safest places in the country. For example, a 2001 U.S. Department of Education study found that the overall homicide rate at post-secondary education institutions was 0.07 per 100,000 students in 1999.1 By comparison, the criminal homicide rate in the United States as a whole was 5.7 per 100,000 persons overall in 1999, and 14.1 per 100,000 for persons ages 17 to 29. A Department of Justice study found that 93% of violent crimes that victimize college students occur off campus.2
Despite the success of these gun-free policies, an increasingly extreme pro-gun movement in the USA is promoting legislation and litigation to force colleges and universities to allow concealed guns on campus. As a result, schools in Arkansas, Colorado, Idaho, Kansas, Mississippi, Oregon, Utah, Texas and Wisconsin have now been forced in different ways to allow the carrying of firearms on their premises (i.e. campus grounds, classrooms, dormitories, or parking lots).
United States Map
COLOR CODING KEY
RED = Concealed guns allowed by law
GREY = Concealed guns allowed by law, but schools limit locations/who carries
GREEN = Concealed guns on campus prohibited by law
YELLOW = Schools decide weapons policy
ORANGE = Concealed guns allowed only in locked cars in parking lots
See clickable U.S. map above with information about campus gun policies and lists of schools that have been forced to adopt policies to allow concealed guns on campus.
To learn about legislation that is currently being considered at the state level to legalize guns on campus—and what you can do to fight it—visit the Campaign to Keep Guns off Campus website.
Views of Chinese:
The unique history, culture and legal of the United States cause shooting cases. Having a special experience of being the world’s arsenal in the two world wars, military industry has become the American leading industry in the world and has had unwieldy political forces, therefore gun group has extremely strong lobbying power to prevent any bills about gun forbidden to be approved.
Since the right of having gun can’t be strictly limited, in Chinese views, as long as the adults can get gun, it’s easy for kids to get too, no matter whatever kind and how strict of law there is. In some sense this issue is just like the idea of “gun against gun criminal” that sounds fair but actually impossible. The worse part is, kids or teen-ages are always the most impulsive group to conduct extreme behaviors.
Due to different culture or so called national characteristic like “risk adverse” index, if such thing happened 3 times in Chinese campus there must be numerous appeals for gun forbidding all over the country, more likely a much more strict prohibition on gun would be implemented in a temporary period. Actually most of Chinese can’t understand why the United States government didn’t enact a gun prohibition. Because of that, many of them view the school shooting in America an inextricable problem as well as a stubborn social problem in the United States.
As we were writing this article, another shooting happened at Tennessee State University, Nashville this morning. One person died, two others were injured in the shooting at an outdoor courtyard at the campus in Nashville. They were hospitalized with non-life-threatening injuries, said Kelli Sharpe, a university spokeswoman.
The incident occurred during a student gathering in which two men not enrolled at the university may have been gambling, according to Sharpe. Both men exchanged gunfire, and one was killed, she said.